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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
 QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020
or
 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___________________ to ___________________
Commission File Number: 001-39263
Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware82-3607803
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
530 Seventh Avenue,
Suite 2201
New York,
 New York
10018
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(212) 433-3791
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
N/A
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock,
$0.001 par value per share
ZNTLThe Nasdaq Global Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes  ☐    No    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated Filer
  Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  ☒
As of May 14, 2020, the registrant had 35,878,518 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.





Table of Contents
Page
PART I.
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
i


CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Quarterly Report, including without limitation statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, the anticipated impact of the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic on our business, business strategy, prospective products and product candidates, clinical trial timelines and expected timing for the release of data, research and development costs, future revenue, timing and likelihood of success, potential collaboration opportunities, and plans and objectives of management are forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report are only predictions and are based largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report and are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other important factors, including those described under the sections in this Quarterly Report entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report.
Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified and some of which are beyond our control, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.
BASIS OF PRESENTATION
As used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, unless the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” “Zentalis” and similar references refer: (1) following the consummation of our statutory conversion to a Delaware corporation on April 2, 2020 in connection with our initial public offering, to Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and (2) prior to the completion of such conversion, to Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”—“Corporate Conversion” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further information.
ii


PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements.
3


Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except unit amounts)
March 31,December 31,
 20202019
ASSETS
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$63,650  $67,246  
Accounts receivable from government grants, net139  140  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets2,220  1,505  
Total current assets66,009  68,891  
Property and equipment, net519  501  
Operating lease right-of-use assets2,276  2,335  
Prepaid expenses and other assets2,353  2,134  
Deferred financing costs3,525  841  
Goodwill3,736  3,736  
In-process research and development8,800  8,800  
Restricted Cash411  243  
Total assets$87,629  $87,481  
LIABILITIES, CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED UNITS AND DEFICIT
Current Liabilities
Accounts payable$7,019  $4,289  
Accrued expenses9,920  10,608  
Total current liabilities16,939  14,897  
Deferred tax liability2,463  2,463  
Other long-term liabilities1,484  1,700  
Total liabilities20,886  19,060  
Commitments and contingencies
Convertible preferred units; Redemption value of $162,120,000 and $146,944,000 at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively
155,934  141,706  
EQUITY (DEFICIT)
Class A common units; 20,000,000 units authorized at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019; 5,601,478 units issued and outstanding at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019
709  709  
Class B common units, 3,458,522 units authorized at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019; 2,607,309 and 2,670,668 units issued and outstanding at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively
2,507  2,178  
Accumulated deficit(99,119) (82,993) 
Total Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC members’ deficit(95,903) (80,106) 
Noncontrolling interests6,712  6,821  
Total deficit(89,191) (73,285) 
Total liabilities, convertible preferred units and deficit$87,629  $87,481  
4


Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(Unaudited)
(In thousands, except per unit amounts)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 2020 2019
Operating Expenses 
Research and development$13,258  $7,089  
General and administrative3,141  1,633  
Total operating expenses16,399  8,722  
Operating loss(16,399) (8,722) 
Other Income (Expense)
Interest income164  74  
Other expense  (12) 
Net loss before income taxes(16,235) (8,660) 
Income tax expense  3  
Net loss(16,235) (8,663) 
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests(109) (320) 
Net loss attributable to Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC$(16,126) $(8,343) 
Net loss per Class A common unit outstanding, basic and diluted$(2.88) $(1.49) 
Units used in computing net loss per Class A common unit, basic and diluted5,601  5,594  
5


Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Unaudited)
(in thousands)
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202019
Operating Activities: 
Consolidated net loss$(16,235) $(8,663) 
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization38  21  
Share-based compensation329  129  
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable1  225  
Prepaid expenses and other assets(1,050) (230) 
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities53  (467) 
Operating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities, net(7) (21) 
Net cash used in operating activities(16,871) (9,006) 
Investing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment(31) (41) 
Net cash used in investing activities(31) (41) 
Financing Activities:
Proceeds from the issuance of Series C convertible preferred units, net14,228    
Deferred financing costs(754)   
Net cash provided by financing activities13,474    
Decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(3,428) (9,047) 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of year67,489  25,154  
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of year$64,061  $16,107  
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing activities:
Amounts accrued for purchases of property and equipment$25  $7  
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for operating lease liabilities$  $1,369  
Costs incurred in connection with initial public offering included in accounts payable and accrued expenses
$1,930  $  
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the periods presented:
March 31,
20202019
Cash and cash equivalents$63,650  $16,107  
Restricted cash, non-current411    
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash reported in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows
$64,061  $16,107  
6


Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Convertible Preferred Units and Members’ Deficit
(In thousands, except per unit amounts)
 Convertible
Preferred Units
Convertible
Preferred Units
Class A
Common Units
 
Class B
Common Units
 Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Zentalis
Pharmaceuticals,
LLC Members’
Equity (Deficit)
Noncontrolling
Interests
Total
Equity
(Deficit)
 UnitsAmountUnitsAmountUnitsAmountUnitsAmount 
Balance at December 31, 20199,950  $141,706  —  $—  5,601  $709  2,671  $2,178  $(82,993) $(80,106) $6,821  $(73,285) 
Issuance of Series C convertible preferred units at $17.50 per unit net of issuance costs
867  14,228  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  
Cancellation of profit interest awards, net
—  —  —  —  —  —  (64) —  —  —  —  —  
Share-based compensation expense
—  —  —  —  —  —  —  329  —  329  —  329  
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest
—  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (109) (109) 
Net loss attributable to Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC
—  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (16,126) (16,126) —  (16,126) 
Balance at March 31, 202010,817  $155,934  —  $—  5,601  $709  2,607   $2,507  $(99,119) $(95,903) $6,712  $(89,191) 
 Convertible
Preferred Units
Convertible
Preferred Units
Class A
Common Units
Class B
Common Units
 Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Zentalis
Pharmaceuticals,
LLC Members’
Equity (Deficit)
Noncontrolling
Interests
Total
Equity
(Deficit)
 UnitsAmountUnitsAmountUnitsAmountUnitsAmount
Balance at December 31, 2018—  $—  5,103  $59,830  5,594  $672  1,612  $1,598  $(37,330) $24,770  $7,536  $32,306  
Issuance of profit interest awards, net
—  —  —  —  —  —  48  —  —  —  —  —  
Share-based compensation expense
—  —  —  —  —  2  —  127  —  129  —  129  
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest
—  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (320) (320) 
Net loss attributable to Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC
—  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (8,343) (8,343) —  (8,343) 
Balance at March 31, 2019—  $—  5,103  $59,830  5,594  $674  1,660  $1,725  $(45,673) $(16,376) $7,216  $(23,592) 
7


Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
1. Organization and Business
Organization
Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC (“Zentalis”, “We” or the “Company”) is a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company focused on discovering and developing clinically differentiated, novel small molecule therapeutics targeting fundamental biological pathways of cancer. The Company was formed and incorporated in the state of Delaware as Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. on December 23, 2014. Effective November 21, 2017, Zeno Pharma, LLC was formed by the shareholders of Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. On December 21, 2017, Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. became a wholly owned subsidiary of Zeno Pharma, LLC. In connection with this restructuring, the rights and preferences of the Preferred Stock of Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. were exchanged for preferred units with similar rights and preferences of Zeno Pharma, LLC. As part of the restructuring, the employees, consultants and board members of Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. exchanged their equity grants in Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. stock for Class B common incentive units in Zeno Pharma, LLC. Additionally, existing common stockholders of Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. exchanged their common stock for Class A common units in Zeno Pharma, LLC. All exchanges were made on a one-for-one basis. The restructuring was accounted for as a common control transaction. In December 2019, the Company was renamed to Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC.
Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC is a Delaware limited liability company. The Company manages its operations as a single segment for the purposes of assessing performance and making operating decisions. To date, all of the Company’s revenue has been generated in the United States. All of the Company’s tangible assets are held in the United States.
Immediately prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement pertaining to the Company’s initial public offering (“IPO”) on April 2, 2020, the Company converted from a Delaware limited liability company into a Delaware corporation, and changed its name to Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Pursuant to the statutory corporate conversion, all of the outstanding units of Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC converted into shares of common stock of Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. based upon the value of Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at the time of the IPO with a value implied by the price of the shares of common stock sold in the IPO. Based on the IPO price of $18.00 per share, the outstanding units converted into 25,288,854 shares of common stock (including 1,160,277 shares of restricted common stock).
On April 7, 2020, the Company completed the IPO in which the Company issued and sold 10,557,000 shares of common stock (including 1,377,000 shares of common stock in connection with the full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares) at a public offering price of $18.00 per share. The Company’s aggregate gross proceeds from the sale of shares in the IPO, including the sale of shares pursuant to the full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, was $190.0 million before fees and expenses of $17.6 million.
Liquidity
Substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern exists when relevant conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, indicate that it is probable that the entity will be unable to meet its obligations as they become due within one year from the financial statement issuance date. The Company determined that there are no conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 are issued.
8


2. Interim Unaudited Financial Statements
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) and with the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) related to a quarterly report on Form 10-Q. The year-end condensed consolidated balance sheet data was derived from the Company’s audited financial statements but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019 included in the Company’s final prospectus for its IPO, filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1933, as amended, with the SEC on April 6, 2020 (the Prospectus). The unaudited financial information for the interim periods presented herein reflects all adjustments which, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair presentation of the financial condition and results of operation for the periods presented, with such adjustments consisting only of normal recurring adjustments.
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of our wholly owned subsidiaries, majority-owned or controlled companies, and variable interest entity (“VIE”), Kalyra Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Kalyra”), for which we are the primary beneficiary. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, which are based on historical and anticipated results and trends and on various other assumptions that management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. By their nature, estimates are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty and, as such, actual results may differ from management’s estimates.
Though the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic to our business and operating results presents additional uncertainty, we continue to use the best information available to inform our critical accounting estimates.
Comprehensive Loss
Comprehensive loss is equal to net loss for the periods ended March 31, 2020 and 2019.
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Adoption and Pending Adoption of Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The following table provides a brief description of recently issued accounting standards, those adopted in the current period and those not yet adopted:
Standard  Description  Effective Date  Effect on the Financial
Statements or Other
Significant Matters
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-03, Codification Improvements to Financial InstrumentsThis guidance makes improvements to financial instruments guidance, including the current expected credit losses guidance.January 1, 2020We have adopted the new guidance as of January 1, 2020. The impact of the adoption was not material to the consolidated financial statements.
In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-01, Investments – Equity Securities (Topic 321)This standard clarifies the interaction between accounting standards related to equity securities (ASC 321), equity method investments (ASC 323), and certain derivatives (ASC 815). January 1, 2021We currently do not hold equity securities, have equity method investments or derivatives. We do not believe the adoption will have a material impact on our consolidated financial position or results of operations.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. In November 2018 and April and May of 2019, the FASB issued additional guidance related to Topic 326.The standard amends the impairment model by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses to estimate credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments that aren’t measured at fair value through net income.January 1, 2020We have adopted the new guidance on January 1, 2020. The impact of the adoption was not material to the consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes.The new guidance is intended to simplify aspects of the accounting for income taxes, including the elimination of certain exceptions to the guidance in ASC 740 related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, among other changes.January 1, 2020We have adopted the new guidance on January 1, 2020. The impact of the adoption was not material to the consolidated financial statements.
3. Business Combinations
Kalyra Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
On December 21, 2017, we acquired $4.5 million of Kalyra’s Series B Preferred Stock representing a 25% equity interest in Kalyra for purposes of entering the analgesics therapeutic research space. The acquisition price was paid entirely in cash.
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In accordance with the authoritative guidance, we concluded that Kalyra is a business consisting of inputs, employees, intellectual property and processes capable of producing outputs. Additionally, we have concluded that Kalyra is a variable interest entity, we are the primary beneficiary and have the power to direct the activities that most significantly affect Kalyra’s economic performance through common management and our board representation. Prior to the change of control, Zeno and Kalyra transacted for the delivery of research and development services and support. The financial position and results of operations of Kalyra have been included in our consolidated financial statements from the date of the initial investment.
Pursuant with authoritative guidance, we have recorded the identifiable assets, liabilities and noncontrolling interests in the VIE at their fair value upon initial consolidation. The identified goodwill is comprised of the workforce and expected synergies from combining the entities. Total assets and liabilities of Kalyra as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 are as follows (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
 20202019
Cash and cash equivalents$286  $712  
Other current assets77  21  
In-process research and development8,800  8,800  
Goodwill3,736  3,736  
Other long-term assets  14  
Accounts payable and accrued expenses113  391  
Deferred tax liability2,463  2,463  
Noncontrolling interests$6,712  $6,821  
The liabilities recognized as a result of consolidating Kalyra do not represent additional claims on our general assets. Pursuant to the authoritative guidance, the equity interest in Kalyra not owned by Zeno is reported as a noncontrolling interest on our consolidated balance sheets.
The following is a reconciliation of equity (net assets) attributable to the noncontrolling interest (in thousands):
March 31,March 31,
 20202019
Noncontrolling interest at beginning of period$6,821  $7,536  
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest(109) (320) 
Noncontrolling interest at end of period$6,712  $7,216  
4. Fair Value Measurement
As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, we held approximately $60.3 million and $63.0 million of money market funds measured at fair value on a recurring basis and categorized as Level 1 securities using the fair value hierarchy. 
There were no transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy during the three months ended March 31, 2020. We had no instruments that were classified within Level 3 as of March 31, 2020 or December 31, 2019.
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5. Prepaid Expenses and Other Assets
Prepaid expenses and other assets consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
 20202019
Prepaid insurance$303  $150  
Prepaid software licenses and maintenance299  238  
Prepaid research and development expenses3,668  2,985  
Other prepaid expenses303  266  
Total prepaid expenses and other current assets4,573  3,639  
Less long-term portion2,353  2,134  
Total prepaid expenses and other assets, current$2,220  $1,505  
6. Property and Equipment, net
Property and equipment, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
 20202019
Computer and Office Equipment$271  $243  
Lab Equipment401  401  
Leasehold Improvements24  24  
Construction in Progress28    
Subtotal724  668  
Accumulated depreciation and amortization(205) (167) 
Property and equipment, net$519  $501  
Depreciation and amortization expense for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 was approximately thirty-eight thousand and twenty-one thousand respectively.
7. Accrued Expenses
Accrued expenses consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31,December 31,
20202019
Accrued research and development expenses$5,103  $5,465  
Accrued employee expenses2,008  2,977  
Accrued general and administrative expenses1,916  1,356  
Lease liability810  781  
Other83  29  
Total accrued expenses$9,920  $10,608  
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8. Convertible Preferred Units
Series A Convertible Preferred Units
In September 2015, Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. entered into a Series A Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement (the “Series A Preferred Agreement”). Under the terms of the Series A Preferred Agreement, Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. issued 1,293,104 shares of Series A convertible preferred stock at $11.60 per share for gross proceeds of $15.0 million. The net proceeds of this financing were $14.9 million after issuance costs of $0.1 million. In February and March 2016, Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. issued an aggregate of 286,205 additional shares of Series A convertible preferred stock at $11.60 per share for additional gross proceeds of $3.3 million. The issuance costs of this additional financing were approximately thirty-nine thousand dollars. All Series A convertible preferred stock issued and outstanding by Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. was converted into Series A convertible preferred units of Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC in conjunction with the corporate restructuring and merger.
Series B Convertible Preferred Units
In December 2017, Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC entered into a Series B Preferred Unit Purchase Agreement (the “Series B Preferred Agreement”). Under the terms of the Series B Preferred Agreement, Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC issued 2,735,320 Series B preferred units at $12.43 per unit for gross proceeds of $34.0 million. The net proceeds of this financing were $32.1 million after issuance costs of $1.9 million. In January and August 2018, Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC issued an aggregate of 788,419 additional shares of Series B preferred units at $12.43 per unit for additional gross proceeds of $9.8 million. The net proceeds of this additional financing were $9.5 million after issuance costs of $0.3 million.
Series C Preferred Unit Issuance
In September 2019, Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC entered into a Series C Preferred Unit Purchase Agreement (the “Series C Preferred Agreement”). Under the terms of the Series C Preferred Agreement, Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC issued 4,847,106 units of Series C convertible preferred units at $17.50 per unit for gross proceeds of $84.8 million. The net proceeds of this financing were $81.9 million after issuance costs of $2.9 million. In February 2020, Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC issued 867,194 additional units of Series C preferred units under the Series C Preferred Agreement. The units were issued for $17.50 per unit for gross proceeds of $15.2 million. The net proceeds of this financing were $14.2 million after issuance costs of $1.0 million.
The authorized, issued, and outstanding shares of convertible preferred units at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 were as follows:
March 31, 2020
SeriesUnits
Authorized
Shares Issued
and
Outstanding
Liquidation
Value
Carrying
Value
Series A convertible preferred units1,579,309  1,579,309  $18,319,984  $18,225,809  
Series B convertible preferred units3,523,739  3,523,739  43,800,076  41,603,945  
Series C convertible preferred units5,714,300  5,714,300  100,000,250  96,104,453  
Total10,817,348  10,817,348  $162,120,310  $155,934,207  
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December 31, 2019
SeriesUnits
Authorized
Shares Issued
and
Outstanding
Liquidation
Value
Carrying
Value
Series A convertible preferred units1,579,309  1,579,309  $18,319,984  $18,225,809  
Series B convertible preferred units3,523,739  3,523,739  43,800,076  41,603,945  
Series C convertible preferred units5,714,300  4,847,106  84,824,355  81,876,092  
Total10,817,348  9,950,154  $146,944,415  $141,705,846  
During 2019, we reclassified the convertible preferred units from members’ equity to temporary equity because, in conjunction with the Series C convertible preferred units issuance, all units were now deemed to contain contingent liquidation features that are not solely within our control. During the year ended December 31, 2019 and three months ended March 31, 2020, we did not adjust the carrying values of the convertible preferred units to the deemed redemption values of such units since a liquidation event was not probable.
Dividends
Dividends are payable if and when declared by the Board of Directors. No dividends have been declared through March 31, 2020.
Conversion
Each Series A preferred unit, Series B preferred unit and Series C preferred unit shall be convertible at the option of the holder thereof, at any time after the issuance of such unit, into Class A common units at a conversion price equal to the original purchase price (subject to anti-dilution adjustments, discussed below) which is $11.60, $12.43 and $17.50 per unit, respectively. The convertible preferred units will automatically convert at the then applicable conversion rate upon the closing of a firm commitment underwritten public offering of shares of a successor corporations’ common stock, at a public offering price per share of equal to or greater than the Series C original purchase price (as adjusted for any stock splits, stock dividends, combinations or other similar recapitalization) resulting in aggregate gross cash proceeds of at least $75.0 million (a “Qualified IPO”). Additionally, the convertible preferred unit will be automatically converted into common stock, at the then applicable conversion rate, upon written consent of a majority of the then outstanding Series A, Series B and Series C convertible preferred units (voting as a separate class on an as converted to Common Unit basis).
Anti-dilution protection
The holders of the convertible preferred unit have proportional anti-dilution protection for unit splits, unit dividends and similar recapitalizations. Subject to certain exclusions, anti-dilution price protection for additional sales of securities by us for consideration per unit less than the applicable conversion price per unit of any series of convertible preferred stock, shall be on a broad-based weighted average basis.
Protective rights
The holders of the convertible preferred unit have certain protective rights, including, without limitation, regarding the authorization, alteration, redemption, or sale of Class B common units; commencement of a liquidation or deemed liquidation event; entrance into a joint venture or partnership; any incurrence of indebtedness; certain transactions that exceed a certain dollar threshold; changes to our governing documents; or the declaration of any dividends. Such actions must be approved by a majority of the then outstanding Series A, Series B and Series C convertible preferred unit holders (voting as a single class and on an as-converted basis), as specified in the amended and restated LLC agreement. An increase or decrease in the authorized number of Directors constituting the Board or the creation of a membership interest or equity security senior to or pari passu with Series C convertible preferred units must be approved by a majority of the then outstanding Series C convertible preferred Units (voting as a separate class on an as converted basis).
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Redemption
The Series A, Series B and Series C convertible preferred units are not redeemable except in the event of certain effected deemed liquidation events. As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, we have classified convertible preferred units as temporary equity in accordance with authoritative guidance for the classification and measurement of potentially redeemable securities whose redemption is based upon certain change in control events outside of our control, including liquidation, sale or transfer of control of the Company. We did not adjust the carrying value of the convertible preferred units to the deemed redemption values of such units since a liquidation event was not probable.
Liquidation preference
In the event of the dissolution, liquidation, merger or winding up of the Company, the holders of Series C convertible preferred units are entitled to receive, on a pro rata basis in respect of each such Series C convertible preferred unit, a preference amount of $17.50 per Series C convertible unit (as adjusted for any unit splits, dividends, combinations, recapitalizations or the like).
Subsequent to the payment of the Series C convertible preferred unit preferences, Series A and Series B convertible preferred units are entitled to receive, on a pro rata basis in respect of each convertible preferred unit in proportion to the relative preference amount of each preferred unit, a preference amount of $11.60 and $12.43 per unit of Series A and Series B convertible preferred units (as adjusted for any units splits, dividend, combinations, recapitalizations of the like), respectively.
Subsequent to the payment of the Series C, Series A and Series B convertible preferred unit preferences, Series A, Series B and Series C convertible preferred units are entitled to receive, on an as converted to common unit pro rata basis, an amount equal to distributions made to Class A common units prior to all unit classes sharing in distributions on a pro rata basis. Thereafter, Series A, Series B and Series C convertible preferred units and Series A and Series B common units are entitled to receive the remaining assets of the Company available for distribution to its unit holders pro rata based on the number of common units held by each holder, treating for these purposes as if all units had been converted to common.
Voting Rights
The holders of all units other than Class B common units that are unvested shall vote together as a single class. Each holder of Series A, Series B and Series C convertible preferred units shall be entitled to the number of votes calculated on an as converted to Class A common unit basis.
9. Members’ Equity
In November 2017, Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC was formed in the state of Delaware. In conjunction with a corporate restructuring, Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware Corporation formed in 2014, was acquired by the Company pursuant to a merger agreement and became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. Per the terms of the merger agreement, each share of Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. common stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the merger was converted into the right to receive one Class A common unit and each share of Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Series A preferred stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective date of the merger converted into the right to receive one Series A preferred unit. As of the effective time of the merger agreement, all outstanding options to purchase shares of Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. common stock were cancelled and replaced with profit interest awards in the LLC.
In connection with the December 2017 corporate restructuring, we amended and restated the LLC agreement, and as amended, the capital units of the Company consisted of 1,638,000 authorized Series A preferred units, 3,621,000 authorized Series B preferred units, 15,000,000 authorized Class A common units and 872,620 authorized Class B common units.
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Class A Common Units
In conjunction with the corporate restructuring in December 2017, 5,187,554 shares of common stock issued and outstanding and 406,831 shares of common stock subject to future vesting provisions of Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. were converted into an equal number of Class A common units of Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, we did not issue any Class A common units and 9,572 shares of Class A common units were subject to future vesting conditions. During the year ended December 31, 2019, 7,093 Class A common units were issued and 9,572 shares of Class A common units were subject to future vesting conditions. In September 2019, the number of authorized Class A common units was increased to 20,000,000.
Class B Common Units
In conjunction with the corporate restructuring in December 2017, 703,000 options exercisable into Zeno Pharmaceuticals, Inc. common stock were converted into an equal number of Class B Common Units of Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC. In September 2019, the number of authorized Class B common units was increased to 3,458,522.
Share-based Compensation
Total share-based compensation expense related to share based awards was comprised of the following (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
20202019
Research and development expense$136  $66  
General and administrative expense193  63  
Total share-based compensation expense$329  $129  
As of March 31, 2020, there was $3.4 million of total unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested profit interest award compensation arrangements granted under the Zeno Pharma, LLC 2017 Profit Interest Plan (the “Plan”). The cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 3.2 years.
The fair value of the profit interest awards is estimated using an option pricing model with the following assumptions:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20202019
Members’ equity value (in thousands)$271,207  $197,041  
Threshold amounts (in thousands)$309,824  $143,800  
Risk free rate1.5 %1.5 %
Volatility75.0 %75.0 %
Time to liquidity (in years)1.11.3
Lack of marketability discount26.5 %1.9 %
Grant date fair value$3.06  $1.88  
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The Black Scholes option pricing model is used to estimate the fair value of each profit unit award on the date of grant. The members’ equity value was based on a recent enterprise valuation analysis performed. The threshold amounts are based on the discretion of the Board of Directors at the time of grant. The expected life of the Class B Common Unit awards granted during the period presented was determined based on an expected liquidation event under the plan. We apply the risk-free interest rate based on the U.S. Treasury yield in effect at the time of the grant consistent with the life of the award. The expected volatility is based on a peer group in the industry in which the Company does business consistent with the expected time to liquidity. The dividend yield was set at zero as the underlying security does not and is not expected to pay a dividend. The Finnerty model and the Asian Protective Put Model methods were used to estimate the discount for lack of marketability inherent to the awards.
The Class B common units issued have been classified as equity awards and share-based compensation expense is based on the grant date fair value of the award. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, we issued 70,000 and 47,500 Class B common units, respectively. As of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, approximately 1.5 million units and 1.7 million units of unvested Class B common units were outstanding.
10. Commitments and Contingencies
Legal Contingencies
From time to time, we may be involved in various disputes, including lawsuits and claims arising in the ordinary course of business, including actions with respect to intellectual property, employment, and contractual matters. Any of these claims could subject us to costly legal expenses. While we do generally believe that we have adequate insurance to cover many different types of liabilities, our insurance carriers may deny coverage, or our policy limits may be inadequate to fully satisfy any damage awards or settlement. If this were to happen, the payment of any such awards could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations and financial position. Additionally, any such claims, whether or not successful, could damage our reputation and business. We are currently not a party to any legal proceedings.
Leases
Our commitments include payments related to operating leases. Approximate annual future minimum operating lease payments as of March 31, 2020 are as follows (in thousands):
YearOperating Leases
2020$765  
20211,044  
2022661  
2023187  
Total minimum lease payments:2,657  
Less: imputed interest(363) 
Total operating lease liabilities2,294  
The weighted-average remaining lease term of our operating leases is approximately 2.7 years. As of March 31, 2020, we have entered an additional lease for real estate that has not yet commenced with total minimum lease payments of approximately $23.1 million. This lease is expected to commence in the first quarter of 2021 and has a lease term of 10 years.
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11. Net Loss Per Class A Common Unit
Basic and diluted net loss per Class A common unit were calculated as follows (in thousands except per unit amounts):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20202019
Numerator:
Net loss attributable to Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC$(16,126) $(8,343) 
Denominator:
Weighted average number of Class A common units outstanding, basic and diluted
5,601  5,594  
Net loss per Class A common unit$(2.88) $(1.49) 
Our potential and dilutive securities, which include preferred units, have been excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per Class A common unit as the effect would be to reduce the net loss per Class A common unit. We considered the impact of presenting a separate earnings per unit calculation for Class B common units. However, as earnings and losses are only allocable to Class B common units after the applicable threshold has been met, and such thresholds have not been met for earnings per unit purposes, no losses were allocated to Class B common units.
The following Class A common unit equivalents have been excluded from the calculations of diluted net loss per Class A common unit because their inclusion would be antidilutive (in thousands).
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20202019
Preferred units, as if converted to Class A common units10,817  5,103  
Incentive units—Class B common units2,607  1,660  
13,424  6,763  
12. Related Party Disclosures
On December 21, 2017, we acquired 17,307,692 shares of Series B preferred stock of Kalyra for a per share price of twenty-six cents ($0.26) or approximately $4.5 million. The management team and stockholders of Kalyra are also stockholders of the Company.
Prior to the investment, we entered into a license agreement and a master services agreement with Kalyra. The license agreement was signed and commenced on December 31, 2014 for the exclusive rights to develop and commercialize products derived from Kalyra’s technology in the initial area of oncology. The license agreement and all rights were subsequently sold from Kalyra to Recurium IP Holdings, LLC (“Recurium IP”), an entity with common ownership to Kalyra prior to the Zentalis investment. Under the agreement, we have agreed to make payments to Recurium IP based on specific milestones and based on Recurium Equity, LLC’s equity ownership stake in us at the time the milestone is earned. Recurium Equity, LLC (“Recurium Equity”) is also an entity with common ownership to Kalyra prior to the Zentalis investment. In addition, the Company shall pay low to mid-single digit percentage royalties on net product sales to Recurium IP and sublicense fees on any consideration paid to us by a sublicensor. The royalty payments are also based on Recurium Equity’s then equity ownership in us. The license agreement will terminate upon the later of the last expiration of the patent rights or 15 years from the date of commencement.
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The Master Services Agreement (“MSA”) was entered into in January 2015 and states that Kalyra may provide research and development services to us and that we shall reimburse such expenses on a time and materials basis based on the initial statements of work. For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, we incurred approximately seventeen thousand and five thousand dollars of expense with Kalyra that was eliminated in consolidation for research and development services provided, respectively. As of March 31, 2020 and 2019, approximately seventeen thousand and five thousand dollars was due to Kalyra and eliminated in consolidation.
We entered into an Intercompany Services Agreement (“ISA”) with Kalyra in January 2018 which states that we may provide research and development services to Kalyra and that Kalyra shall reimburse such expenses on a time and materials basis. For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, we provided $0.1 million and $0.2 million of research and development services to Kalyra that was eliminated in consolidation, respectively. As of March 31, 2020 and 2019, $0.1 million and $0.8 million was due from Kalyra and eliminated in consolidation, respectively.
13. Subsequent Events
IPO
On April 2, 2020 and immediately prior to the effectiveness of the Company’s IPO, Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC converted from a Delaware limited liability company into a Delaware corporation pursuant to a statutory conversion, and changed its name to Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. In order to consummate the corporate conversion, a certificate of conversion was filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware. All of the outstanding units of Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC converted into shares of common stock of Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. based upon the value of Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at the time of the IPO with a value implied by the price of the shares of common stock sold in the IPO. No cash or fractional shares of common stock were issued in connection with the corporate conversion.  Based on the IPO price of $18.00 per share of common stock, all of the outstanding units converted, into an aggregate of 25,288,854 shares of common stock (including 1,160,277 shares of restricted common stock).
In connection with the completion of the IPO, the board and stockholders approved the certificate of incorporation to provide for 250,000,000 authorized shares of common stock with a par value of $0.001 per share and 10,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.001 per share.
On April 7, 2020, the Company completed an IPO in which the Company issued and sold 10,557,000 shares of common stock (including 1,377,000 shares of common stock in connection with the full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares) at a price of $18.00 per share. The Company’s aggregate gross proceeds from the sale of shares in the IPO, including the sale of shares pursuant to the full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, was $190.0 million before fees and expenses of $17.6 million.


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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The following discussion and analysis of financial condition and operating results should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in our final prospectus for our initial public offering, or IPO, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on April 6, 2020 (the “Prospectus”). Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. As a result of many important factors, such as those set forth in the “Risk Factors” section of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements. For convenience of presentation some of the numbers have been rounded in the text below.
Overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering and developing small molecule therapeutics targeting fundamental biological pathways of cancers. We use our highly efficient drug discovery engine, which we refer to as our “Integrated Discovery Engine,” to identify targets and develop small molecule new chemical entities, or NCEs, with properties that we believe could result in potentially differentiated product profiles. Our discovery engine combines our extensive experience and capabilities across cancer biology and medicinal chemistry. We believe our product candidates are differentiated from current programs targeting similar pathways and have the potential to significantly impact the lives of patients with cancer.
We are developing a broad pipeline of product candidates with an initial focus on validated oncology targets with the potential to address large patient populations. Our lead product candidate, ZN-c5, is an oral selective estrogen receptor degrader, or SERD, currently in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, or ER+/HER2-, advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We have designed ZN-c5 to have high potency and selectivity, as well as favorable tolerability and pharmacokinetic, or PK, properties. Subject to the impact of the novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, on our business, we expect to report initial results top-line data from the Phase 1, monotherapy dose escalation portion of this Phase 1/2 trial in the second half of 2020. Our other product candidates include ZN-c3, an inhibitor of WEE1, a protein tyrosine kinase, currently in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial for the treatment of advanced solid tumors; ZN-d5, a selective inhibitor of B-cell lymphoma 2, or BCL-2, initially in development for the treatment of hematological malignancies; and ZN-e4, an irreversible inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor, or EGFR, currently in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer, or NSCLC. Subject to the impact of COVID-19 on our business, we expect to report initial results from the Phase 1 portion of the ongoing trials of each of ZN-c3 and ZN-e4 in 2021, and to initiate a Phase 1 clinical trial of ZN-d5 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, or B-cell lymphoma in the first half of 2021. We submitted our fourth investigational new drug application with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, for our product candidate, ZN-d5, on March 30, 2020. In addition, we plan to submit an IND to the FDA for our fifth product candidate in 2021. We currently own worldwide development and commercialization rights to each of our product candidates, other than in select Asian countries (including China) for ZN-e4 for which we have out-licensed these rights. We are currently evaluating entering into a strategic geographic collaboration and licensing agreement for the development and commercialization rights in China for certain of our clinical and pre-clinical assets beyond ZN-e4. We believe this strategic geographic collaboration, if executed, could allow us to maximize the value of our product candidate pipeline and allow for global expansion and coordination of our clinical trials. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to enter into this, or any, strategic geographic collaboration. Since our inception, our operations have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, business planning, raising capital, establishing our intellectual property portfolio and performing research and development of our product pipeline. We do not have any products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenues from product sales. On April 7, 2020, we completed our IPO and issued and sold approximately 10.6 million shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $18.00 per share, including approximately 1.4 million shares in connection with the full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, resulting in net proceeds of approximately $172.4 million, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses.
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We had cash and cash equivalents of $63.7 million as of March 31, 2020. We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents as of March 31, 2020, together with the net proceeds of $172.4 million from our IPO, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into 2022. We have based these estimates on assumptions that may prove to be imprecise, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we expect.
Since inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. Our net losses were $46.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, and $8.7 million and $16.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and March 31, 2020, respectively. We had an accumulated deficit of $99.1 million as of March 31, 2020. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future.
We will not generate revenue from product sales unless and until we successfully complete clinical development and obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates. In addition, if we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we expect to incur significant expenses related to developing our commercialization capabilities to support product sales, marketing and distribution activities, either alone or in collaboration with others. Furthermore, we expect to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company, including significant legal, accounting, investor relations and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company.
As a result, we will need to raise substantial additional capital to support our continuing operations and pursue our growth strategy. Until such time as we can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, we plan to finance our operations through the sale of equity, debt financings or other capital sources, which may include collaborations with other companies or other strategic transactions.
Corporate Conversion
Immediately prior to the effectiveness of our IPO Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-236959) on April 2, 2020, Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC converted from a Delaware limited liability company into a Delaware corporation pursuant to a statutory conversion, and changed its name to Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. We refer to all transactions related to our conversion to a corporation as the Corporate Conversion. As a result of the Corporate Conversion, all holders of units of Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, LLC became holders of shares of common stock of Zentalis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
In connection with the Corporate Conversion, our outstanding Series A convertible preferred units, Series B convertible preferred units, Series C convertible preferred units, Class A common units and Class B common units, or Units, converted into an aggregate of 25,288,854 shares of our common stock (including 1,160,277 shares of restricted common stock) based on the IPO price of $18.00 per share of common stock.
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Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic
We are closely monitoring how the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting our employees, business, preclinical studies and clinical trials. In response to the spread of COVID-19, we have closed our executive offices with our administrative employees continuing their work outside of our offices and limited the number of staff in any given research and development laboratory. Disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in difficulties including delays in initiating new trial sites, suspension of enrollment at some of our existing trial sites, and the incurrence of additional costs as a result of preclinical study and clinical trial delays. Limited operations at our laboratory facilities have also resulted in delays in our research-stage programs. As a result, we expect that the COVID-19 pandemic may continue to impact our business, revenues, results of operations and financial condition. At this time, there is significant uncertainty relating to the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic and impact of related responses. The impact of COVID-19 on our future results will largely depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, the duration of the pandemic, travel restrictions and social distancing in the United States and other countries, business closures or business disruptions, the ultimate impact of COVID-19 on financial markets and the global economy, and the effectiveness of actions taken in the United States and other countries to contain and treat the disease. See “Risk Factors— The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has adversely impacted and may continue to adversely impact our business, including our preclinical studies and clinical trials.” in Part II, Item 1.A. of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
License Agreements and Strategic Collaborations
Recurium IP Holdings, LLC
In December 2014, and as amended and restated effective as of December 2017 and September 2019, we entered into a license agreement, or the Recurium Agreement, with Recurium IP Holdings, LLC, or Recurium IP, under which we were granted an exclusive worldwide license to certain intellectual property rights owned or controlled by Recurium IP to develop and commercialize pharmaceutical products for the treatment or prevention of disease, other than for pain. We have the right to sublicense our rights under the Recurium Agreement, subject to certain conditions. We are required to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize at least one product that comprises or contains a licensed compound and to execute certain development activities.
Our payment obligations under the Recurium Agreement are based on the percentage of ownership interest Recurium Equity, LLC, an affiliated company of Recurium IP, has in us. Under the terms of the Recurium Agreement, we are obligated to make development and regulatory milestone payments, pay royalties for net sales and make sublicensing payments with respect to certain licensed products directed to one of ten specific biological targets, including ZN-c5, ZN-c3 and ZN-e4. We are obligated to make development and regulatory milestone payments for such licensed products of up to $44.5 million if Recurium Equity, LLC has less than 10% ownership percentage of us, or up to $21.5 million if the ownership percentage is 10% or more but no more than 15%. If the percentage of ownership interest Recurium Equity, LLC has in us is greater than 15% then no development and regulatory milestone payments will be due. In addition, we are obligated to make milestone payments up to $150,000 for certain licensed products used in animals. We are also obligated to pay royalties on sales of such licensed products at a mid- to high-single digit percentage if Recurium Equity, LLC’s ownership percentage in us is less than 10%, at a mid-single digit percentage if such ownership percentage is 10% or more but no more than 15%, and at a low-single digit percentage if such ownership percentage is above 15%. In addition, if we choose to sublicense or assign to any third parties our rights under the Recurium Agreement with respect to such licensed products, we must pay to Recurium IP certain sublicensing income received in connection with such transaction if Recurium Equity, LLC has less than 10% ownership percentage of us, or a percentage of 10% if the ownership percentage is 10% or more but no more than 15%. If the percentage of ownership interest Recurium Equity, LLC has in us is greater than 15% then no sublicensing payments will be due. Upon the closing of our IPO, based on the IPO price of $18.00 per share, Recurium Equity, LLC’s ownership interest in us is 11.6%, requiring potential payment of aggregate development and regulatory milestone payments of $21.5 million and royalties of mid-single digit percentage on sales of the relevant licensed products.
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Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
In February 2016, and as amended in April 2017 and December 2017, we entered into an option agreement, or the Mayo Agreement, with Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research under which we were granted an exclusive option to obtain a nonexclusive worldwide license to know-how and an exclusive worldwide license related to patent rights created by Mayo under the Mayo Agreement. We have the right to sublicense our rights under the Mayo Agreement, subject to certain conditions. We are required to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize licensed products. Under the terms of the Mayo Agreement, we are obligated to pay royalties on sales for each licensed product at a low-single digit percentage as well as grants of equity interests to be negotiated on a case-by-case basis. In addition, in consideration for the grant of know-how we provided grants of common stock on the first anniversary and Class A common units on the second and third anniversaries following entry into the Mayo Agreement. As of February 29, 2020, we have granted equity securities which amount to 11,123 Class A common units under the Mayo Agreement. The Mayo Agreement will expire on the date of the last to expire of the Mayo patent rights or, if no Mayo patent rights arise, on February 11, 2021. As of the date of the Prospectus, no Mayo patent rights have been created under the Mayo Agreement. The Mayo Agreement may be terminated in its entirety or in part by Mayo in the event of an uncured material breach by us, in the event that we bring suit against Mayo, except for an uncured material breach of the Mayo Agreement by Mayo, or in the event we are subject to specified bankruptcy, insolvency or similar circumstances.
SciClone Pharmaceuticals International (Cayman) Development Ltd.
In December 2014, and as amended in December 2016 and December 2017, we entered into a collaboration and license agreement, or the SciClone Agreement, with SciClone Pharmaceuticals International (Cayman) Development Ltd., or SciClone, under which we granted an exclusive license certain intellectual property rights in the People’s Republic of China (including the territories of Macao and Hong Kong), South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, or the SciClone Territory, for SciClone to develop and commercialize a licensed product for the treatment or prevention of oncologic diseases and an exclusive option to obtain a similar license for up to two additional licensed products. Under the SciClone Agreement, SciClone is responsible for clinical development activities required in order to obtain regulatory approval in the SciClone Territory. SciClone paid to us a one-time upfront payment of $1.0 million upon entering into the SciClone Agreement, and $4.0 million in aggregate milestone payments. No additional development or commercial milestones or reimbursement for research and development expenses are payable under the SciClone Agreement, as amended. We are entitled to receive a mid-single digit royalty on net sales of licensed products in the SciClone Territory, which royalty is subject to certain reductions in the event that SciClone is unable to achieve certain gross margins or if generic products are sold or if technology covering a licensed product is licensed from a third party. We have also agreed to pay SciClone tiered royalties pursuant to the terms of the SciClone Agreement, the applicable rate of which are determined based on whether a compound is developed to a successful dual investigational new drug application, or IND, submission and the costs incurred by SciClone for the development of such product candidate. Following the December 2016 amendment to the SciClone Agreement, SciClone retains the exclusive license to develop and commercialize our EGFR inhibitor product candidate, ZN-e4, in the SciClone Territory, and the exclusive option to obtain an exclusive license to develop up to two specified compounds under the SciClone Agreement for which we submit an IND by providing notice and paying $5 million to us. SciClone’s and our royalty obligations will expire on a licensed product-by-licensed product and country-by-country basis on the later of fifteen years from the date of first commercial sale or when there is no longer a valid patent claim covering such licensed product in such country.
Pfizer Clinical Trial Collaboration and Supply Agreement
In May 2018, we entered into a clinical trial collaboration and supply agreement with Pfizer, Inc. to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of ZN-c5 in combination with their CDK4/6 inhibitor, palbociclib, in our ongoing Phase 1/2 clinical trial of ZN-c5. Pursuant to this agreement, we will be responsible for the conduct and cost of the relevant studies, under the supervision of a joint development committee made up of our representatives and representatives of Pfizer that meets quarterly. Pfizer will supply palbociclib for use in the trial, at no cost to us.
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Components of Our Results of Operations
Revenue
To date, we have not generated any revenue, and we do not expect to generate any revenue in the foreseeable future from product sales. We have generated, and may in the future generate, revenue from payments received under our collaboration agreements, which includes payments of upfront fees, license fees, milestone-based payments and reimbursements for research and development efforts.
Research and Development Expenses
salaries, benefits and other related costs, including stock-based compensation expense, for personnel engaged in research and development functions;
expenses incurred under agreements with third parties, including contract research organizations, or CROs, and other third parties that conduct research, preclinical activities and clinical trials on our behalf as well as contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, that manufacture drug material for use in our preclinical studies and clinical trials;
costs of outside consultants, including their fees, stock-based compensation and related travel expenses;
the costs of laboratory supplies and acquiring, developing and manufacturing preclinical study and clinical trial materials;
license payments made for intellectual property used in research and development activities; and
allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and other operating costs.
We expense research and development costs as incurred. Reimbursed research and development costs under government grant arrangements are recorded as a reduction to research and development expenses and are recognized in the period in which the related costs are incurred.
We track external development costs by product candidate or development program, but we do not allocate personnel costs, license payments made under our licensing arrangements or other internal costs to specific development programs or product candidates. These costs are included in unallocated research and development expenses in the table below.
The following table summarizes our research and development expenses by product candidate or development program:
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20202019
 (in thousands)
ZN-c5$4,693  $1,006  
ZN-c3 1,641   1,087  
ZN-d5 1,267   814  
ZN-e4 753   570  
Unallocated research and development expenses 4,904   3,612  
Total research and development expenses$13,258  $7,089  
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Research and development activities are central to our business model. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size and duration of later-stage clinical trials. We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase substantially for the foreseeable future and will comprise a larger percentage of our total expenses as we complete our ongoing clinical trials, initiate new clinical trials, continue to discover and develop additional product candidates and prepare regulatory filings for any product candidates that successfully complete clinical development.
The successful development of our product candidates is highly uncertain. At this time, we cannot determine with certainty the duration and costs of our existing and future clinical trials of our product candidates or any other product candidate we may develop or if, when, or to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of any product candidate for which we obtain marketing approval. We may never succeed in obtaining marketing approval for any product candidate. The duration, costs and timing of clinical trials and development of our product candidates and any other product candidate we may develop in the future will depend on a variety of factors, including:
per patient trial costs;
the number of patients who enroll in each trial;
the number of trials required for approval;
the number of sites included in the trials;
the countries in which the trials are conducted;
the length of time required to enroll eligible patients;
the drop-out or discontinuation rates of patients;
any delays in clinical trials as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic;
potential additional safety monitoring requested by regulatory agencies;
the duration of patient participation in the trials and follow-up;
the phase of development of the product candidate; and
the efficacy and safety profile of the product candidate.
uncertainties in clinical trial design and patient enrollment rates;
the actual probability of success for our product candidates, including the safety and efficacy, early clinical data, competition, manufacturing capability and commercial viability;
significant and changing government regulation and regulatory guidance;
the timing and receipt of any marketing approvals; and
the expense of filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing any patent claims and other intellectual property rights.
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A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of a product candidate could mean a significant change in the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate. For example, if the FDA or another regulatory authority were to require us to conduct clinical trials beyond those that we anticipate will be required for the completion of clinical development of a product candidate, or if we experience significant delays in our clinical trials due to patient enrollment or other reasons, we would be required to expend significant additional financial resources and time on the completion of clinical development.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and other related costs, including stock-based compensation, for personnel in our executive, finance, business development and administrative functions. General and administrative expenses also include legal fees relating to intellectual property and corporate matters; professional fees for accounting, auditing, tax and consulting services; insurance costs; travel expenses; and facility-related expenses, which include direct depreciation costs and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and other operating costs.
We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future as we increase our personnel headcount to support increased research and development activities relating to ZN-c3, ZN-c5, ZN-d5, ZN-e4, and any other product candidate we may develop. We also expect to incur increased expenses associated with being a public company, including costs of accounting, audit, legal, regulatory and tax-related services associated with maintaining compliance with Nasdaq and SEC requirements; director and officer insurance costs; and investor and public relations costs.
Interest Income
Interest income consists of interest earned on cash and cash equivalents. We expect our interest income to increase due to the net proceeds from our IPO.
Income Taxes
Since our inception in December 2014, our corporate subsidiaries have generated cumulative federal and state net operating loss for which we have not recorded any net tax benefit due to uncertainty around utilizing these tax attributes within their respective carryforward periods.
Net Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest
Since December 21, 2017, the date of our initial investment in Kalyra Pharmaceuticals, Inc., or Kalyra, we have consolidated the financial results of our affiliate, Kalyra. Although we do not have a controlling interest in Kalyra, we determined that Kalyra was a variable interest entity, of which we were the primary beneficiary. For more information on the treatment of Kalyra as a variable interest entity, please see Note 3 to our unaudited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
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Results of Operations
Comparison of Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 to Three Months Ended March 31, 2019
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the periods indicated, together with the changes in those items in dollars:
 Three Months Ended March 31, Increase
(Decrease)
 2020 2019
 (in thousands)
Operating expenses
Research and development $13,258  $7,089  6,169  
General and administrative 3,141  1,633  1,508  
Total operating expenses 16,399  8,722  7,677  
Loss from operations (16,399) (8,722) (7,677) 
Interest income 164  74  90  
Other expense —  (12) 12  
Net loss before income taxes (16,235) (8,660) (7,575) 
Income tax expense —   (3) 
Net loss (16,235)